Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Great Expectations: A Synopsis Essay

â€Å"The most exceedingly terrible penitentiaries are those we make for ourselves. † To what degree do you concur? Set in the nineteenth Century Victorian England, a significant number of the principle characters in Great Expectations’ are detained either for all intents and purposes or figuratively. Magwich is a genuine detainee of the English reformatory framework, and is additionally his very own detainee want to vindicate Compeyson and the class framework. Miss Havisham advertisement Pip make detainment facilities for themselves out of their own obsessions and fixations. It could likewise be contended that Pip and Estella are both allegorically detained by Miss Havisham and Magwitch’s need to vindicate. In spite of the fact that the portrayal of Newgate is frightful, and the impacts of the jails forced upon Pip and Estella are hard to defeat the unfavorable light and mental consequences for Pip, Miss Havisham and Magwitch resultant of their purposeful penitentiaries are the most exceedingly awful detainment facilities of all, since they are so illusive and tricky, that the characters frequently dont know about their reality until the harm is finished. Through his presentation to Satis House and Estella’s provoking perniciousness, Pip gets mindful of his social mediocrity, and accordingly grows the principal seeds of discontent with his group. Like an inaccessible yet appealing star, Pip is enticed by Estella’s riches and excellence, and out of his presentation to her his all devouring fixation on turning into a gentelman develops. Amusingly, when this thought initially rose, Pip truly had next to no comprehension of what a refined man was. Despite the fact that he can't lucid whether he has this longing â€Å"to demonstrate hatred for her or to pick up her over,† this intense urge directs a mind-blowing heading. He gets detained into a shallow and limited be. cf that a noble man is somebody with riches, status and learning, and will go to any lengths to accomplish this point, yet dismissing Joe and Biddy. Pip picks up his incredible desires frorn Magwitch, and in spite of the fact that he was figuratively detained by Magwitch’s abuse of him to vindicate the class framework Pip had just started to commend the bogus estimations of gentilify. Pip could have utilized Magwitch’s cash to turn into an individual from the high society, yet at the same time hold characteristics of benevolence and empathy (like Herbert. Rather, Pip becomes secured in the realm of luxurious consumption, insatiability and debasement. Notwithstanding his despondency, indicated obviously the Finch Club â€Å"there was a gay fiction that we were continually having a ball, and a keleton of truth that we never did†, it takes him numerous years and preliminaries to liberate himself from this tricky deliberate jail. In spite of the blame that he believes, he despite everything figures out how to Justify his treatment of Joe in light of the fact that the jail he has made for himself is so hard to break out of. Miss Havisham is the exemplification of the staggering results of making ones own jail. In the wake of being cheated and left at the adjust, Miss Havisham is so genuinely demolished that she makes her own virtual and rnetaphorical jail. She limits herself to her manor, which â€Å"had a large number iron limits bars to it’? furthermore, discloses to Pip that she had â€Å"never seen the sun since you were conceived. † But she likewise limits her and raising her simply as an instrument to â€Å"wreak havoc† in the hearts of men. Miss Havisham makes her own jail to vindicate all guys, and this jail wraps her reality. So devoured by disdain, Miss Havisham’s heart starts to rot, as is representative in her environmental factors â€Å"covered in residue and form and dropping to peices†, just as her insect pervaded spoiled wedding cake. Like Pip, it takes Miss Havisham numerous yearsand much enduring to comprehend that she was really detained. The urning point for her came when she understood that Estella couldn't sweetheart her in light of the fact that â€Å"l won her love away and set ice in its proper place. Pip recognizes that Miss Havisham’s detainment of Estella was a â€Å"greivous thing† however perceived that her own disconnection from the world and from the mending influcences to her brain and broken heart were interminably more regrettable. Conversly, Magwitch is a detainee of the reformatory framework. In spite of the fact that he carried out a wrongdoing that saw him set in a Jail, Magwitch didn't make this jail since he was constrained into detainment by the specialists, and was essentially compelled to submit rime so as to endure. His detainment was not a cognizant decision, as was Pip and Miss Havisham’s, and dissimilar to the others, Magwitch was very much aware of this detainment. In spite of his loss of opportunity and years inundated in sub-human conditions, his psychological detainment in the need to vindicate Compeyson and class framework, which he makes for himself, has the most harming impact on his life. Subsequent to getting away from the jail transport, Magwitch could have been free had it not been for his retribution upon Compeyson. Due to these acitons, Magwitch winds up again detained and sent for life to Australia. Once more, it was his willful detainment that caused the most harm. Magwitch invests the majority of his energy in Australia attempting to change over Pip into a man of honor to vindicate the class framework, rather than Just overlooking his past and proceeding onward with his life. He even ventures to such an extreme as to return to Englas to see â€Å"my gentleman†, and is thusly condemned to death for returning. Through the tales of Pip, Miss Havisham and Magwitch, Dickens is obviously communicating that the most noticeably awful detainment facilities are those we make for ourselves, as their harm is unpretentious to the casualty who might be ignorant of their reality.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Cognitive Appraisal and/or Personality Traits Free Essays

Recommended APA style reference: Li, M. (2009, March). Subjective evaluation and additionally character characteristics: Enhancing dynamic adapting in two sorts of upsetting circumstances. We will compose a custom paper test on Psychological Appraisal and additionally Personality Traits or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now Paper dependent on a program introduced at the American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Charlotte, NC. Intellectual Appraisal or potentially Personality Traits: Enhancing Active Coping in Two Types of Stressful Situations Paper dependent on a program introduced at the 2009 American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, March 22, Charlotte, North Carolina Ming-hui Li Ming-hui Li, EdD, LPC, LMHC, is an associate teacher in the Department of Human Services and Counseling at St. John’s University, Queens, NY. His territories of claim to fame incorporate pressure adapting and flexibility advancement. Understudies every now and again experience upsetting circumstances (Dungan, 2002; Li, 2006). Some undergrads effectively adapt to unpleasant circumstances while others become survivors of the circumstances. The specialist has been keen on investigating factors that lead understudies to effectively adapt to distressing circumstances. Improving these elements may encourage understudies to utilize dynamic adapting. The term dynamic adapting in the examination alludes to people’s adapting reactions that are described by tackling issues, looking for social help, and non-shirking. The motivation behind this examination was to investigate powerful indicators of dynamic adapting in two significant sorts of upsetting circumstances among undergrads: connection and work. Consequences of this investigation may give data to instructors to assist understudies with adjusting better to school life by upgrading explicit factors in various distressing circumstances. Hypothetical Framework Researchers have not agreed on the idea of adapting. For instance, process-arranged specialists (e. g. , Albinson Petrie, 2003; Lazarus Folkman, 1984; Olff, Langeland Gersons, 2005) recommended that subjective evaluation decides the reactions people embrace to adapt to upsetting circumstances. Interestingly, diathesis-arranged analysts (e. g. , Abela Skitch, 2007; Li Yuan, 2003; Wagner, Chaney, Hommel, Andrews, Jarvis, 2007) proposed that a match between character characteristics and stress types chooses adapting reactions. The current investigation investigated the degree to which a mix of these two hypothetical methodologies can decide school students’ work of dynamic adapting. Procedure situated specialists (e. g. , Albinson Petrie, 2003; Lazarus Folkman, 1984; Olff, Langeland Gersons, 2005) suggested that adapting is a procedure (rather than a minor quality) where individual elements, for example, convictions, and natural elements, for example, oddity, cooperate to influence adapting reactions through intellectual evaluation. These specialists contended that character attributes and condition are inadequate to decide adapting reactions. Psychological examination, they accept, is the thing that decides individuals’ adapting reactions. From their point of view, adapting reactions can be chosen simply after people have intellectually thought to be (a) how their lives are affected by the circumstance and (a) what they can do to manage the circumstance. Interestingly, diathesis-situated analysts (e. g. , Abela Skitch, 2007; Li Yuan, 2003; Wagner, Chaney, Hommel, Andrews, Jarvis, 2007) advocate that individuals’ character attributes impact adapting reactions in explicit settings. They contended that character attributes impact adapting reactions most in unpleasant circumstances that are firmly identified with those characteristics. For instance, individuals’ self-viability (an assignment related quality) has extraordinary impact on their adapting reactions to task-related unpleasant circumstances, for example, searching for low maintenance work. Conversely, individuals’ secure connection (a connection related characteristic) is ground-breaking in affecting adapting reactions to connection related upsetting circumstances, for example, coexisting with new flat mates. The two methodologies have been upheld by past investigations. Be that as it may, little consideration has been attracted to the chance of joining the two methodologies. The current investigation tended to this chance. The examination was intended to investigate the degree to which a blend of these two hypothetical methodologies impacts individuals to effectively adapt to distressing circumstances. Intellectual examination and three attributes (self-viability, secure connection, and versatility) were remembered for the consolidated model. As indicated by the procedure arranged methodology, subjective evaluation was relied upon to anticipate dynamic adapting over the two upsetting circumstances. In view of the diathesis-arranged methodology, self-viability was required to anticipate dynamic adapting in business related upsetting circumstances, for example, searching for low maintenance work; and secure connection was relied upon to foresee dynamic adapting in connection related circumstances, for example, coexisting with new flat mates. Furthermore, the analyst guessed that strength can anticipate dynamic adapting in both connection related and business related upsetting circumstances since this attribute reflects individuals’ general capacity to direct the negative impacts of pressure (Benetti Kambouropoulos, 2006). Subjective evaluation, self-viability, secure connection, and versatility were applied to anticipate dynamic adapting in two sorts of distressing circumstances (connection, work), so as to identify the adequacy of the consolidated model. The two theories tried in the investigation were: Hypothesis 1: In connection related circumstances, secure connection, subjective evaluation, and strength can viably anticipate dynamic adapting. Theory 2: In business related circumstances, self-viability, subjective examination, and versatility can successfully foresee dynamic adapting. Strategies Members were 126 understudies selected from a school in Taiwan. Their age ran from 18 to 23 years of age. The mean age of this example was 19. 6. Members were arranged into two groupsâ€a connection gathering and a work gathering, in view of their self-announced upsetting circumstances. The quantities of members in gatherings of connection and work were 76 and 50, individually. The specialist regulated a poll to members when they were sitting tight for a class. Members marked educated assent shapes before they reacted to the survey. Information was gathered utilizing a poll containing the Resilience Scale (Wagnild Young, 1993), the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (Collins, 1996), the Coping Strategy Indicator (Amirkhan, 1990), the Chinese Adaptation of General Self-Efficacy Scale (Zhang Schwarzer, 1995), and class I (psychological evaluation) of the Student-Life Stress Inventory (Gadzella, 1991). The entirety of the instruments have been utilized to consider undergrads and have exhibited satisfactory legitimacy (build or simultaneous legitimacy) and unwavering quality (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha range from . 6 to . 93). The entirety of the instruments aside from the Chinese adjustment of General Self-Efficacy Scale were deciphered by the analyst from English into Chinese. Two bilingual Psychology teachers and four bilingual doctoral understudies analyzed the deciphered instruments. A bilingual undergrad understudy, who was oblivious to the first English instruments, back-made an interpretation of the Chi nese adaptations into English. The first instruments and the back-interpreted instruments were close in significance, demonstrating right language transference. Interior consistency appraisals of unwavering quality (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha) were figured for every one of the instruments utilized in this examination. The qualities for coefficient alpha were . 89, . 90, . 75, . 87, and . 81 for the Student-Life Stress Inventory (SSI), the Resilience Scale (RS), the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (AAS-Revised), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSS), and the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI), individually. The alpha qualities for the three sub-sizes of the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI) were . 86 (critical thinking), . 88 (looking for social-support), and . 68 (evasion). What's more, the alpha incentive for the classification I (subjective examination) of the Student-Life Stress Inventory (Gadzella, 1991) was . 84. The exploration structure of this examination was a correlational plan with four free (indicator) factors and one ward variable. The four free factors were psychological evaluation, flexibility, secure connection, and self-viability. The reliant variable was dynamic adapting. This examination configuration comprised of two separate numerous relapse systems that were utilized to test the proposed model in two kinds of distressing circumstances. Information Analysis and Results The information were broke down by utilizing SPSS 14. 0. Two strategies of various relapse were applied to test the two theories. The progression insightful technique was utilized in light of the fact that the accessible writing doesn't give guidance with regards to how the factors in this examination ought to be gone into a various relapse condition. By utilizing the progression insightful technique, the specialist permitted the PC to choose the model with the best measurable â€Å"fit. † Correlations among indicator factors and between indicator factors and the reliant variable were analyzed so as to meet the prerequisites of various relapse. The anomaly was expelled so it didn't affect the precision of information examination. The model used to screen exceptions were (an) a Cook’s separation more prominent than 1, and (b) a normalized remaining more noteworthy than 3. Theory 1 was bolstered while Hypothesis 2 was not upheld. Results indicated that (an) intellectual examination and versatility can anticipate dynamic adapting in distressing circumstances related with connection, and (b) secure connection can foresee dynamic adapting in business related upsetting circumstances. Tables I and II indicated the outcomes. Table I. Synopsis of Regression Analyses of Resilience, Secure Attachment, and Self-Efficacy Predicting Active Coping in Relation-Related

Friday, August 21, 2020

Frankenstein (1818 Book) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Frankenstein (1818 Book) - Research Paper Example Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein adequately renders the crowd alarmed at the central idea that people themselves can make life from the dead. Through science, the epistemological limit of Shelley’s work mirrors the likelihood to investigate the yet obscure so that by fiction, it can advance differed ideas whose substance may put forth for a scope of observations from being a mysterious miracle to an object of fear. The resulting frenzy in Victor as a science understudy who has seriously segregated himself from the standards of the living to oppose human cutoff points conceivably makes a frightening credit to the story where one could well connect mental disturbance with wrongdoing or a progression of dreary acts to follow conspiring past rational soundness. Frankenstein, thus, is mentally tended to in the light of this unique situation. As an instrument of tension, also, the research facility settings where Frankenstein conducts rough experimentation even more seem to increa se the frightening impact of situations wherein one is directed to envision the awful triumph of reproducing life from the patches of grave-covered fleshes. Shelly figures out how to mix uneasiness into crowd sensation by guiding the subject to be comprehended in the idea of antiquated speculative chemistry mixed with some modern science as depicted through the thought that high volts of power would light reflexes to the at first inert man-made animal. The tremendous appearance of Victor’s creation just as the sequential killings that follow upon the creature’s escape from his work environment further establishes the components to gothic puzzle and loathsomeness. The creator step by step calms the story from this phase in quest for exhibiting the limit of the animal to isolate savage senses from its acknowledgment of virtues. In the novel, the animal is said to have achieved self-acknowledgment by directing himself to get information through writing, as by perusing Mil ton’s ‘Paradise Lost’. Despite what might be expected, while he stays confused with just snorting or snarling to communicate, the 1931 film consents to show advancement of normal characteristics as the animal watches the cottagers to figure how people convey to share reasonable worries through feelings and utilization of keenness or thinking. From these conditions, he weaves and even battles to obtain idea of himself comparable to mankind and the fondness of people to esteems dependent on otherworldly convictions. Shelley insinuates in her story that in spite of the fact that the brutish element has a culprit’s mind, a segment of his inclination despite everything watches out for blameless mission for self-character and longing to gain society’s endorsement. In the event that one asks who the genuine beast is in Frankenstein, by reflection of every chief character, the inquiry may satisfactorily draw reaction from the story’s ontological meth odology when the beast ends up meandering with charm as he arbitrarily investigates with information on human experience and profound confidence or conviction. The weight of blame may not be promptly assigned upon an animal who is flippant preceding mindfulness of which Shelley’s defense satisfactorily gives proof. Evidently, it is Victor Frankenstein who ought to get the fault for following his impulses of precisely shaping existence without paying respect to sound rationale and the shocking outcomes of his silly undertaking. He purposely disregards moral idea and this is the essential ground for the loss of his friends and family, so in actuality,

Thursday, June 4, 2020

How to Omit Unnecessary Words in Your MBA Application Essays

The book Elements of Style, by Strunk and White, has long been known as an excellent source of information about elements of the English language and an overall guide to writing style. Some of the most practical  tips that are discussed  in this book will also be useful in writing  your MBA application essays: Respect Space and Attention Not only are the spaces you are given to write your business school essays constrained by the given word count, but the attention span of the Admissions Committee (who will be reviewing your applications) is also rather short. Using unnecessary words dilutes the impact of the most powerful parts of your essays, the same way adding water to a perfectly blended coffee would dilute the drink. Being respectful of word limits and the valuable time of the reader should help provide you with some discipline, allowing you to cut down on unrelated tangents and lengthy deliveries as you  edit your writing. Write for a Broad Audience Taking into account that your reader may  be someone who does not hold an MBA himself   and even more likely, holds a background outside your specific field avoid using industry jargon  and  company-specific references while writing. These details are needless words that will only bore, and potentially  even alienate, your readers. Instead, write with a broader audience in mind, focusing your essays on your  impact on people, your company as a whole  and events, rather than on  finite, technical details of your work and accomplishments. Focusing on  only the style of your writing, especially by  showing off an overly-immense vocabulary, can also distract from your message, just like the 2013 movie, The Counselor.  (Chances are you haven’t even seen this movie, and that just makes my point!) With a top-caliber cast and crew, this film disappointed critics and the box-office alike   with names like Brad Pitt, Cormac McCarthy, Ridley Scott, Michael Fassbender, Penelope Cruz, and Cameron Diaz associated with the film, it was a wonder that  a movie could fail so badly. However, word-of-mouth from most moviegoers and critics was often unnecessarily long-winded and boring. Thus, the film’s vast talents and materials at its disposal were wasted. Just as a successful box-office hit will keep a wider audience engaged while still delivering its message powerfully and subtly, your essays should present your personal story well  to all readers,  and make the Admissions Committee  root for your triumph. Applying to business school? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today, or take our free MBA Admissions Profile Evaluation  for personalized advice for your unique application situation! And as always, be sure to find us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+  and Twitter. Written by Edison Cu, a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for  INSEAD. You can read  more articles by him here.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Major Components Of The Criminal Justice System - 906 Words

Major Components of the Criminal Justice System Chelsea Sequeira 10/28/17 Citrus College AJ 101 Criminal Justice There are 3 major components of the criminal justice system; Police, Courts, and Corrections. These 3 systems work in harmony to enforce laws, punishments for violators of the laws, and to help correct the behaviors of criminals. The police system works closely with the public to investigate crimes, arrest offenders, maintain public order and provide emergency and related services. They also help reduce or prevent crimes, enforce public safety, and enforcing laws. The police make sure to protect the freedom and fundamental rights of people. The police system consist of people in the roles of: †¢ Police†¦show more content†¦It first starts with a crime being committed, let’s say Joe shot and killed Alex. A bystander reported the shooting to the police, the police and investigators that get assigned to this homicide, work with other members of the police system to investigate what happened and who was responsible for the crime. The police then determine that Joe shot and killed Alex. Joe is then found and arrested on murder charges. Now remember Joe is innocent until proven guilty by a judge or jury of his peers. This all happens within the Police system. The following happens with the Court system: Joe is then arrested and booked into the county jail until his initial appearance usually a very brief encounter in the court room in which the judge presents the defendant with a list of crimes his is being charged with and the maximum punishment that is preset by the law. He is then taken back to the jail and held until a preliminary hearing is set. He goes to the preliminary hearing where the judge determines if there is enough evidence to proceed with a trial. If judge doesn’t think there is enough evidence to support the charges the charges will be dropped or dismissed. If the judge proceeds with the charges the next time he is in court will be for a bail or detention hearing. During this hearing, the judge determines if Joe is eligible for bail, a set amount of money the criminal pays in order to beShow MoreRelatedThe Criminal Justice System Is A Big Part Of Why We Have Order1205 Words   |  5 PagesThe criminal justice system is a big part of why we have order. If there was no criminal justice system and its components that keep it running, the population would run wild. There are three major components of the criminal justice system, the criminal courts, corrections, and law enforcement. These components help uphold the law and protect people from others who do break the law. The world is not perfect, but there have been many examples in real life and in literature and films that show whatRead MoreCriminal Justice System Paper803 Words   |  4 PagesCriminal Justice System Paper CJA/204 Vonnie Cooper March 28, 2011 Ken Salmon The word â€Å"crime† means an illegal action that is prohibited by law or a breakage of certain laws set forth by the criminal justice system. When someoneRead MoreThe Three Components Of The Criminal Justice System1323 Words   |  6 PagesIn the criminal justice system, there are many components and rules that everyone must follow. The main three components are law enforcement, courts, and corrections. All three of these components interact with each other at one point or another in the criminal justice system. In the first phase, you have the law enforcement these are people that are looking for the individuals that are breaking the law. According to Smith (2017), â€Å"Law enforcement personnel are also responsible for bringing forthRead MoreThe Major Components Of Crime Prevention963 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen tasked to describe the major components of crime prevention. You might think that this is an easy thing to do however, there are many aspects to crime prevention and in order to define it we need to have an understanding of what crime prevention is. In this essa y I will give you my definition of what crime prevention is as well as describe the major components of crime prevention. I will explain the relationship of crime prevention to the Criminal Justice System. I will then give you twoRead MoreThe Doctrinal Design Has Been Used To Study The Jurisprudential1425 Words   |  6 Pagesis the status of child witnesses in the Criminal Justice system? 1.6 Chapterization Scheme:It should in sentence format CHAPTER NAME CONTENTS 1. Introduction Witness assumes additional significance in adversarial system of criminal justice where the onus of proving the case lies on the prosecution and the witness of prosecution becomes important in the pursuit of exploring the truth. 2. Criminal Justice System in India Our adversarial criminal justice system aims at reducing the level of criminalityRead MoreThree Components Of The Criminal Justice System950 Words   |  4 Pages The three components of the American criminal justice system are the police, courts, and corrections. These components operate independently of one another and maintain different goals, histories, and operating procedures (Neubauer Fradella, 2017). There are two commonly accepted models of the criminal justice system, the crime control model and due process model. These two models vary at the basic level, the crime control model aims to protect society at all costs while the due process modelRead MoreThe Three Components Of The Criminal Justice System888 Words   |  4 PagesFrancois Degboe B. Robinson Intro to Criminal Justice 07 September 2017 Most people don’t know about the three major components of the criminal justice system, but, in this paper the reader will know what they are. The reader will also read about how the three components interrelate to one another, and also how the conflict one another. The Three major components are Law Enforcements, Courts, and the Correctional System. 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They all work together to prevent crime and to punish those who have committed crime, but they can also work as individual units to make self service gains. This paper will go into detail the components of the criminal justice system; define what crime is and itsRead MoreCriminal Justice System : A System Of Law Enforcement1616 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The criminal justice system is a system of law enforcement that is directly involved in prosecuting, defending, sentencing, and punishing people suspected of crime or convicted of felony offenses. The criminal justice system is made of three major components; law enforcement, courts, and corrections. All have subcomponents that work together in order for the system to function properly and maintain order. The three major components have big backgrounds that lead up to the way they function

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Mentally Ill - 1679 Words

Throughout history, human societies have had conflicting views on insanity and how it is defined in life. Primitive cultures found peace within shamans and witch doctors because they believed the insane were possessed by evil spirits. From then on, in Roman and Greek cultures, there was a somewhat progressive ideology that mental illness came from biological and emotional ailments. They believed in treating those with mental disorders humanely and respectfully which is an attitude that has been forgotten through history and sadly, still is today. However, the Middle Ages became the end of these progressive ideas and introduced insane asylums who â€Å"helped† the mentally ill. Up until the 20th century, insane asylums were used to restrict†¦show more content†¦Ken Kesey’s ideas sprung from his personal experience working in the psychiatric ward of a veteran’s hospital. Kesey came to believe that there was little true mental illness and that patients were declared insane because they acted in ways that society was unwilling to accept. Kasey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest works to understand the idea of insanity and sanity as well as who has the authority and the right to decide what characterizes them. When looking into the depths of this book, it becomes apparent that there is a concept of irony throughout the book. In a mental hospital, one may assume that the people deemed fit to run the institution or be a part of the working community there would at least, (if not able to personally help the patients) be able to provide care that is not damaging them further. Although this would seem to be the most appropriate and morally good atmosphere of any institution, one of the most prominent insinuations of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest happens to be the insanity of most aspects of the Psych Ward, especially Nurse Ratched. Nurse Ratched has no future or current plans of actually helping anyone there, but is somewhat lacking a conscious and can be seen as a depiction of narcissism. She has an agenda set out to control everyone in the institution, including the employees as she picks them based on who is the weakest and most

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Bernini and the Statues of Christian Feeling free essay sample

He was an artist in every sense: painter, architect, actor and theatre director, but above all, a sculptor: the sculptor that reinvented Rome as we know it today. To fully understand Bernini’s work, it is crucial to view it in the context of the religious revolution that took place in the seventeenth century, that is the Counter Reformation. In Hibbard’s words: â€Å"Bernini was the great exponent of triumphant Catholicism in the period following the Catholic Counter reformation.   In contrast with the previous Renaissance ideas, the Counter Reformation was led by the Catholic church to restore its own image. By using propaganda, it demanded that art should be easily read by all, stimulate piety and to involve the spectator. Bernini achieved spectator involvement through the use and development of un bel composto, in particular two elements: architecture and sculpture; and his innovative concetto. To understand these two ideas, their definitions must be clarified: Un bel composto is seen as the unification of visual arts or â€Å"the challenge to create integrated environments† in order â€Å"to heighten religious experience†[5]; while Concetto refers to an artistic concept or â€Å"the poetic invention†[6] of the artist. In this way, Concetto is more than an original idea or thought. In describing Michelangelo’s poetry, Alma Alitzer describes it as a term that brings together â€Å"imagination and reality, subject and object. †[7] To illustrate how Bernini used these elements to provoke the viewer’s response, this essay will analyze three of his major works: Saint Bibiana, Saint Longinus and Ludovica Albertoni. Since â€Å"as time went on, he further intensified mystical and devotional quality,†[8] the works will be presented chronologically. |[pic] | Figure 1 Sta. Bibiana 1624-1626 The figure of Santa Bibiana â€Å"was the first official religious commission and his first draped figure†[9] After the remains of Sta. Bibiana and her family were found in 1624, Bernini was instructed by Pope Urban VIII, to renovate both the facade and the interior of the church. The aim of this work was clearly to inspire piety through the memories of Sta. Bibiana and her family, persecuted by the Emperor Julian the Apostate thus becoming martyrs. As a result, the way in which he presented the image of the Saint and its place within the church will be a determinant factor in Bernini’s work, as it would be in future religious works by him. In the treatment of the body, one can see a clear influence from classical times, although used in a different manner and to express a different message. The pose of the saint is one of piety and compassion, and she is looking towards the altar where a window is concealed and an image of Christ is painted in the vault with opening arms. (fig. 2) [pic] Figure 2 Church of Sta. Bibiana, Rome Saint Bibiana is portrayed with a branch of a palm tree in her arm symbolizing ‘her martyrdom’ and half-opened mouth in an expression of ‘ecstasy’. The architectural and painted space that surround Saint Bibiana merge into one, hence bringing her devotion to life. It is the beholder who must link those elements together; the viewer becomes directly involved, becoming a ‘witness’ to the divine event taking place. In contrast to Renaissance works, the silhouette of the figure is open creating ambiguity, as Peterson observes: â€Å" his figures project their meaning outwardly, beyond their extended arms, feet, wings, hair and tails of drapery†[10] thus allowing the viewer to read into it. This is the beginning of Bernini’s way f revealing â€Å"an inner state by external means. The Saint Longinus 1631-1638 St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome Also commissioned by Urban Pope VII, the connection between form and function in Saint Longinus is undeniable. As Hibbard suggests, â€Å" the Longinus is the best possible example of his new concept of statuary. †[12]. The figure is located under one of the niches in St. Peter’s. As seen in Saint Bibiana, Bernini’s depicts the most important moment in the life of the Saint, which in the case of Saint Longinus is the moment of conversion. His arms are wide open, he is looking up at the Cross as if exclaiming: â€Å"Truly this was the son of God. †[13] Bernini uses a natural source of light from a window above, to create a mystical feeling for the spectator. Another important element that helps to evoke a supernatural experience is the drapery: Bernini has intentionally left the entire surface of the statue with a ridged or striated finish while he used coarser and deeper carving for the drapery, achieving bulky folds and deep cavities thus creating a notable play of light and dark. The viewer is given the impression of richness and as the folds are not obeying gravity, we are also being elevated and converted with him. The statue of Saint Longinus represents â€Å"a forward step in Bernini’s art and adapts this style to religious imagery appropiate to the Ecclesia Triumphans. †[14] [pic] Figure 4 Ludovica Albertoni 1674 Chapel of S. Francisco A Ripa Blessed Ludovica Albertoni â€Å"died of a fever after a life of good work and Franciscan Piety†[15]. The sculpture was commissioned by Cardinal Paluzzi degli Albertoni and can be considered to be the ideal manifestation of un bel composto and of Bernini’s concetto. The Saints’ body and pose are expressions of what is happening in within her soul: her head is resting backwards, her mouth is open and her hands are pressing against her chest and abdomen. In her book Shelly K.. Perlove claims: â€Å"there can be no dispute that the beata as depicted by Bernini is undergoing an intense spiritual experience. †[16]While in the St. Longinus the viewer was being converted with him, in Ludovica Albertoni the viewer â€Å"may conform in the art of Communion†[17]. One of the distinctions between this later work of Bernini and Sta. Bibiana is the increased tendency toward horizontals and verticals to provide a stabilizing element in the composto, as Witkoweer asserts: â€Å"the increased geometry of the underlying system was the necessary complement in the late style to a more radical dissolution of mass. †[18] [pic] Figure 5 The statue is surrounded by symbols: the roses in the vault may indicate â€Å"the marriage to Christ†[19] and the pomegranates depicted in the relief behind the saint’s feet represent both â€Å"the immortality of the soul†[20] and the â€Å"spiritual perfection and salvation. The hallucinatory hidden illumination is provided by concealed windows at left and right above and together with the double arch that frames Ludovica which creates a â€Å"chapel within the chapel,†[22] it provides a theatre-like experience for the spectator. The waves of the drapery, in parallel with her body, and the deep undulations of carved stone help express her emotion thus pushing the viewer back and forward. The drapery is also evocative of the waters of God’s love described by Francis de Sales, John of the Cross and Theresa of Avila, â€Å"according to these writers, the rivers of living water may be understood as the grace of God flowing through a soul united with the deity. †[23] The floating cherubs act as witnesses and add a supernatural character in the chapel. It is a concetto of fire: Bernini represents in Ludovica the Incendium Amoris (â€Å"abnormal psychological phenomenon†) depicted in Spener’s[24] Pia Desideria[25] although the work is also an example of Carita Romana. This is observable in her gesture which is both a reaction to an inner experience and of offering hence â€Å"affirms the beata as the embodiment of the theological virtue of Charity. †[26] The purpose of this essay was to illustrate how Bernini achieved spectator involvement through the use and development of his concetto and un bel composto. Taking into account these three astonishing works, Bernini refines his composto first by means of balancing the underlying system of the figure with it surrounding; second, by proceeding a careful study of the contemporary devotional literature. He succeeds in bringing all the arts together to include the viewer in the experience being portrayed and at the same time obeying the main criteria stated by the Counter Reformation. His concetto is now one of inner heat and divine love. He uses his own devotion to create a space of ambiguity in which â€Å"both mystical and real space breathe the same air†. Bernini added theatricality, drama and ambiguity to his oeuvre through: portraying ecstasy and ardour in the pose and expressions of his figures; by concealing windows above his figures allowing natural sun light to reflect in the pure white marble and by carefully locating his compositions. He makes us aware how much location can affect the way a statue is made†[27] Peterson contends. Nevertheless, Bernini was conscious above all that â€Å"gestures and suddenness are nothing without an audience.